Synthesis, molecular docking analysis, molecular dynamic simulation, ADMET, DFT, and drug likeness studies : Novel Indeno[1,2-b]pyrrol-4(1H)-one as SARS-CoV-2 main protease inhibitors

Copyright: © 2024 Gheidari et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited..

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic began in 2019 as a result of the advent of a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2. At present, there are a limited number of approved antiviral agents for the treatment of COVID-19. Remdesivir, Molnupiravir, and Paxlovid have been approved by the FDA to treat COVID-19 infections. Research has shown that the main protease enzyme (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2 plays a crucial role in the enzymatic processing of viral polyproteins. This makes Mpro an interesting therapeutic target for combating infections caused by emerging coronaviruses.

METHODS: The pharmacological effects of pyrroles and their derivatives have a wide range of applications. In our study, we focused on synthesizing nine novel derivatives of 2-arylamino-dihydro-indeno[1,2-b] pyrrol-4(1H)-one, with a particular emphasis on their antiviral properties. Using in silico studies involving molecular docking and DFT analyses in the gas phase using the B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p) basis set, we studied these compounds with respect to their interactions with the Mpro of SARS-CoV-2. The results of the docking analysis revealed that the synthesized compounds exhibited favorable inhibitory effects. Notably, compound 5f demonstrated the highest effectiveness against the target protein. Furthermore, the pharmacokinetic and drug-like properties of the synthesized derivatives of 2-arylamino-dihydroindeno[1,2-b] pyrrol-4(1H)-one indicated their potential as promising candidates for further development as inhibitors targeting SARS-CoV-2. However, it is imperative to determine the in vitro efficacy of these compounds through comprehensive biochemical and structural analyses.

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Electronic Article

Year of Publication:




Contained In:

To Main Record - volume:19

Contained In:

PloS one - 19(2024), 3 vom: 02., Seite e0299301




Gheidari, Davood [Author]
Mehrdad, Morteza [Author]
Bayat, Mohammad [Author]




3C-like proteinase, SARS-CoV-2
Antiviral Agents
Coronavirus 3C Proteases
EC 3.4.22.-
Journal Article
Protease Inhibitors


Date Completed 25.03.2024

Date Revised 25.03.2024

published: Electronic-eCollection

Citation Status MEDLINE




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